1. United Nations Development Programme, 2002 Arab Human Development Report (New York: UNDP, 2002) 51 and 3, respectively. For all of the reports see www.arab-hdr.org.
2. 2002 AHDR, 5.
3. 2009 AHDR, 6.
4. Nazih N. Ayubi, Overstating the Arab State (London: I.B. Tauris, 2008) 266–267.
5. 2010 EHDR, 2.
6. 2010 EHDR, 67.
7. Larbi Sadiki, "The ‘bin Laden' of marginalization: The real terror eating away at the Arab world is socio-economic marginalization," al-Jazeera.net 14 January 2011. (http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/opinion/2011/01/201111413424337867.html) [accessed January 17, 2011]. See also Gilles Kepel, The Trail of Political Islam (London: Belknap Press, 2002) 60–69, in reference to the young, urban poor of Algeria, known as "hitistes," those who hold up the wall by leaning against it all day.
8. For a helpful English language review of Qutb's thought and impact see Adnan Musallam, From Secularism to Jihad: Sayyid Qutb and the foundations of radical Islamism (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2005).
9. Jordan is the only other Arab country with a formal peace treaty, which was signed in 1994.
10. Fred Halliday, Nation and Religion in the Middle East (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000) 16.
11. Muslim and Coptic services make up 34% and 9% of all Voluntary Service Organizations, respectively. Peter E. Makari, Conflict & Cooperation: Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Egypt (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2007) 144.
12. Ragui Assaad and Malak Rouchdy, Poverty and Poverty Alleviation Strategies in Egypt (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1999) 78–79. On Egyptian Private Voluntary Organizations (PVO) see Diane Singerman, Avenues of Participation: Family, Politics, and Networks in Urban Quarters of Cairo (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1995) 246–255.
13. www.ceoss.org.eg. See also Makari, 151–159.
14. A very recent publication on the social issues and debates around the role of Copts in Egyptian Islamist thought can be found in Rachel M. Scott. The Challenge of Political Islam: Non-Muslims and the Egyptian State (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010).
15. Mohammed Zaid, The Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt's Succession Crisis (London: I.B. Tauris, 2010) 126–127.
16. "State TV: Pope Shenouda calls for an end to the protests," al-masry al-youm (February 5, 2011) (www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/state-tv-pope-shenouda-calls-end-protests) [accessed February 5, 2011]. The state broadcast of his statements can be found at www.youtube.com/watch?v=FxC1GQ4sKnA&feature=player_embedded [accessed February 5, 2011].
17. For a good review of the recent tensions and issues see Kees Hulsman, "Egypt's Christians After Mubarak," Christianity Today (February 11, 2011) (www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2011/march/egyptaftermubarak.html) [accessed February 11, 2011].
18. The term "pope" for the Patriarch of Alexandria is older than the reference to the Bishop of Rome. In the Middle East, when the adjective Pope is used, it is clear that this is a reference to the Coptic Patriarch. The quote is from Hulsman.
19. "Let every person be subject to the governing authorities; for there is no authority except from God, and those authorities that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists authority resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment" (Romans 13:1–2).
20. Yusuf Ramiz, "Broad Christian Resentment Over Coptic Churches Warning Against Participation in Protests," al-sharuq al-jadid (January 27, 2011) as cited by Arab-West Report (http://www.arabwestreport.info/node/27718) [accessed February 12, 2011].
21. A very helpful analysis of the leadership Coptic Orthodox Church in the contemporary period is Sana Hasan, Christians versus Muslims in Modern Egypt: The Century-Long Struggle for Coptic Equality (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). Unfortunately, the title does not reflect the actual content of the book.
22. "‘With what shall I come before the LORD, and bow myself before God on high? Shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves a year old? Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, with ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my firstborn for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?' He has told you, O mortal, what is good; and what does the LORD require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God?" (Micah 6:6–8).
© March / April 2011
Journal of Lutheran Ethics
Volume 11, Issue 2