Social & Scientific Developments
Ever-accelerating advances are made in science, technology and industry.
Karl Guetzlaff born in Germany, later becomes first Lutheran missionary to China.
Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis, having mapped much new country and bolstered U.S. claims to large areas of the Northwest.
Beginning of the Industrial Age.
Victorian Era begins in Europe.
Texas and California are annexed by U.S.
First wave of Asian immigrants into the U.S. -- from China, Japan, Korea, India and the Philippines.
Boston Jenkins Drayton becomes first U.S. Lutheran missionary to Africa.
Stained glass maker Louis Comfort Tiffany is born.
Catherine Winkworth, who made the riches of German hymnody available to English-speaking Christians, publishes her first collection of hymns.
Crimean War starts; Russian-Turkish conflict draws in British and French as Turkish allies.
Vincent Van Gogh is born.
Florence Nightingale pioneers modern nursing in the Crimea.
David Livingstone finds Victoria Falls during his exploration of Zambezi.
Chinese ports are opened to British and French trade, and Treaty of Tientsin legalizes opium trade.
First horse-drawn trams appear in London.
Serfs are emancipated in Russia.
The Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed after the king of Naples surrenders to Garibaldi.
Victor Hugo publishes Les Miserables.
Confederate troops lose decisively at Gettysburg.
Pasteur invents pasteurization (for wine).
Tolstoy writes War and Peace.
End of U.S. Civil War, Lincoln is assassinated.
Architect Frank Lloyd Wright is born.
Suez Canal is opened.
Papal infallibility is proclaimed by Vatican Council.
U.S. Senate declares that Indian nations will no longer be recognized as independent powers with whom treaties can be contracted.
Custer invades Black Hills area in violation of 1808 treaty.
The Zulu war results in defeat of the Zulus by England in South Africa.
"Darwinism" (evolution of the human race, etc.)
Robert Louis Stevenson writes Treasure Island.
The Metropolitan Opera is founded in New York City.
The Norwegian Synod sends Axel Jacobson, a layperson, to begin the Bethany Mission among the Winnebago Tribe around Wittenberg, Wis. This ministry continued until the Evangelical Lutheran Church closed it in 1955.
Last Impressionist exhibition held in Paris.
Statue of Liberty is dedicated.
Herz identifies radio waves.
First moving picture shows in New York.
German Social Democrats adopt Marxist program at Erfurt Congress.
The United Norwegian Lutheran Church in America is founded by merger of the Norwegian Danish Conference (1870) and Norwegian-Danish Augustana Synod (1870) and the Anti-Missourian Brotherhood (1887). Begins publishing The United Lutheran in 1907.
One hundred Lutherans emigrate from Danish West Indies to New York.
Rudolph Diesel patents the diesel engine.
Verdi's Falstaff debuts.
Kipling publishes The Jungle Book.
Wilhelm Roentgen discovers x-rays.
Five Nobel prizes are established.
Klondike gold rush begins.
Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium and polonium.
The Finnish Evangelical Lutheran National Church is organized. It merges into the Missouri Synod in 1963.
Who was Gabriella Cuervos?
Peace Conference held at The Hague.
Aspirin is manufactured for the first time.
Scott Joplin's The Maple Leaf Rag is published.